Rabu, 10 Agustus 2011

Socialization: Homeschoolers Are in the Real World

Socialization: Homeschoolers Are in the Real World
By Chris Klicka, Senior Counsel for the
Home School Legal Defense Association

Academically homeschoolers have generally excelled, but some critics have continued to challenge them on an apparent "lack of socialization" or "isolation from the world." Often there is a charge that homeschoolers are not learning how to live in the "real world." However, a closer look at public school training shows that it is actually public school children who are not living in the real world.

For instance, public school children are confined to a classroom for at least 180 days each year with little opportunity to be exposed to the workplace or to go on field trips. The children are trapped with a group of children their own age with little chance to relate to children of other ages or adults. They learn in a vacuum where there are no absolute standards. They are given little to no responsibility, and everything is provided for them. The opportunity to pursue their interests and to apply their

Homeschoolers, on the other hand, do not have the above problems. They are completely prepared for the "real world" of the workplace and the home. They relate regularly with adults and follow their examples rather than the examples of foolish peers. They learn based on "hands on" experiences and early apprenticeship training. In fact, the only "socialization" or aspect of the "real world" which they miss out on by not attending the public school is unhealthy peer pressure, crime, and immorality. Of course,

Practically, homeschoolers generally overcome the potential for "isolation" through heavy involvement in church youth groups, 4H clubs, music and art lessons, Little League sports participation, YMCA, Scouts, singing groups, activities with neighborhood children, academic contests (spelling bees, orations, creative and research papers), and regular involvement in field trips. In fact, one researcher stated, "The investigator was not prepared for the level of commitment exhibited by the parents in getting t

In nearly every community throughout the country, local homeschool support groups have formed in addition to the state-wide homeschool associations. In many areas these local support groups sponsor weekly and monthly activities for the homeschool students, including physical education classes, special speakers, sports, camping, trips to museums, industries, farms, parks, historic sites, and hundreds of other activities. Regular contests are also held including spelling bees, science fairs, wood working con

In addition, several studies have been done to measure homeschoolers' "self-concept," which is the key objective indicator for establishing a child's self-esteem. A child's degree of self-esteem is one of the best measurements of his ability to successfully interact on a social level. One such study was conducted by John Wesley Taylor, using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale to evaluate 224 home-schooled children. They study found that 50 percent of the children scored above the 90th percentil

Another researcher compared private school nine-year-olds with homeschool nine-year-olds and found no significant differences in the groups in virtually all psycho-social areas. However, in the area of social adjustment, a significant difference was discovered: "private-school subjects appeared to be more concerned with peers than the home-educated group."4 This is certainly an advantage for home-schooled children who can avoid negative peer influence.

In 2004, Dr. Susan McDowell wrote “But What About Socialization? Answering the Perpetual Home Schooling Question: A Review of the Literature” following a challenge to document the common idea that homeschoolers are not socialized in comparison to those students in public schools. McDowell, whose PhD from Vanderbilt University is in educational leadership, claims: “It’s a non-issue today. All the research shows children are doing well.”5

Dr. Linda Montgomery studied homeschool students between the ages of ten and twenty-one and concluded that home-schooled children are not isolated from social activities with other youth. She also concluded that homeschooling may nurture leadership at least as well as the conventional schools do.6

Thomas Smedley prepared a master's thesis for Radford University of Virginia on "The Socialization of Homeschool Children." Smedley used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to evaluate the social maturity of twenty home-schooled children and thirteen demographically matched public school children. The communication skills, socialization, and daily living skills were evaluated. These scores were combined into the "Adoptive Behavior Composite" which reflects the general maturity of each subject.

Smedley had this information processed using the statistical program for the social sciences and the results demonstrated that the home-schooled children were better socialized and more mature than the children in the public school. The home-schooled children scored in the 84th percentile while the matched sample of public school children only scored in the 27th percentile.

Smedley further found that:

In the public school system, children are socialized horizontally, and temporarily, into conformity with their immediate peers. Home educators seek to socialize their children vertically, toward responsibility, service, and adulthood, with an eye on eternity.7

In another 1992 study, Dr. Larry Shyers compared behaviors and social development test scores of two groups of seventy children ages eight to ten. One group was being educated at home while the other group attended public and private schools. He found that the home-schooled children did not lag behind children attending public or private schools in social development.

Dr. Shyers further discovered that the home-schooled children had consistently fewer behavioral problems. The study indicated that home-schooled children behave better because they tend to imitate their parents while conventionally-schooled children model themselves after their peers. Shyers states, "The results seem to show that a child's social development depends more on adult contact and less on contact with other children as previously thought."8

Dr. Brian Ray reviewed the results of four other studies on the socialization of homeschoolers and found:

Rakestraw, Reynolds, Schemmer, and Wartes have each studied aspects of the social activities and emotional characteristics of home-schooled children. They found that these children are actively involved in many activities outside the home with peers, different-aged children, and adults. The data from their research suggests that homeschoolers are not being socially isolated, nor are they emotionally maladjusted.9

J. Gary Knowles, University of Michigan Assistant Professor of Education, released a study done at the University of Michigan which found that teaching children at home will not make them social misfits. Knowles surveyed 53 adults who were taught at home because of ideology or geographical isolation. He found that two thirds were married, which is the norm for adults their age. None were unemployed or on welfare. He found more than three fourths felt that being taught at home had helped them to interact wi

As mentioned earlier, the greatest benefit from homeschool socialization is that the child can be protected from the negative socialization of the public schools associated with peer pressure, such as rebellious attitudes, immaturity, immorality, drugs, and violent behavior.

Adapted from The Right Choice: Home Schooling by Christopher J. Klicka.


1. "Socialization Practices of Christian Home School Educators in the State of Virginia," a study of ten Virginia home school families, performed by Dr. Kathie Carwile, appeared in the Home School Researcher, Vol. 7, No. 1, December 1991.

2. R. Meighan, "Political Consciousness and Home-Based Education, Educational Review 36 (1984):165-73.

3. Dr. John Wesley Taylor, Self-Concept in Home Schooling Children (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International), Order No. DA8624219. This study was done as part of a dissertation at Andrews University. The results of the testing of the 224 home-schooled students was compared to the testing results of 1,183 conventionally schooled children.

4. Dr. Mona Delahooke, "Home Educated Children's Social/Emotional Adjustment and Academic Achievements: A Comprehensive Study," unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles, 1986, 85.

5 Dr. Susan McDowell, “But What About Socialization? Answering the Perpetual Home Schooling Question: a Review of the Literature,” as quoted in “Researchers Say Socialization No Longer an Issue” from The Christian Post http://www.christianpost.com/article/20050526/7552_Researchers_Say_Socialization_No_Longer_an_''Issue''.htm

6. Dr. Linda Montgomery, "The Effect of Home Schooling on Leadership Skills of Home Schooled Students," Home School Researcher (5) 1, 1989.

7. Thomas C. Smedley, M.S., "Socialization of Home Schooled Children: A Communication Approach," thesis submitted and approved for Master of Science in Corporate and Professional Communication, Radford University, Radford, Virginia, May 1992. (Unpublished.)

8. Dr. Larry Shyers, "Comparison of Social Adjustment Between Home and Traditionally Schooled Students," unpublished doctoral dissertation at University of Florida's College of Education, 1992. Dr. Shyers is a psychotherapist who is the Chairman of the Florida Board of Clinical Social Work, Marriage and Family Therapy, and Mental Health Counseling.

9. Dr. Brian Ray, "Review of Home Education Research," The Teaching Home, August/September 1989, 49. See Rakestraw, "An Analysis of Home Schooling for Elementary School-Age Children in Alabama," doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1987; Reynolds, "How Home School Families Operate on a Day-to-Day Basis: Three Case Studies," unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 1985; and

Sosialisasi: homeschooler Apakah di Dunia Nyata
Oleh Chris Klicka, Penasihat Senior untuk
Depan Sekolah Hukum Asosiasi Pertahanan

Akademis homeschooler umumnya unggul, tetapi beberapa kritikus terus menantang mereka pada "kurangnya sosialisasi" jelas atau "isolasi dari dunia." Sering ada tuduhan bahwa homeschooler tidak belajar bagaimana hidup di "dunia nyata." Namun, melihat lebih dekat pada pelatihan sekolah umum menunjukkan bahwa sebenarnya anak-anak sekolah negeri yang tidak hidup di dunia nyata.

Misalnya, anak-anak sekolah umum terbatas pada kelas untuk setidaknya 180 hari setiap tahun dengan sedikit kesempatan untuk terkena tempat kerja atau melakukan perjalanan lapangan. Anak-anak terjebak dengan sekelompok anak-anak usia mereka sendiri dengan sedikit kesempatan untuk berhubungan dengan anak-anak usia lain atau orang dewasa. Mereka belajar dalam vakum di mana tidak ada standar mutlak. Mereka diberi sedikit tanggung jawab, dan semuanya sudah disediakan untuk mereka. Kesempatan untuk mengejar kepe

Homeschooler, di sisi lain, tidak memiliki masalah di atas. Mereka benar-benar siap untuk "dunia nyata" dari tempat kerja dan rumah. Mereka berhubungan secara teratur dengan orang dewasa dan mengikuti contoh mereka daripada contoh dari rekan-rekan bodoh. Mereka belajar didasarkan pada "tangan di atas" pengalaman dan pelatihan magang awal. Bahkan, "sosialisasi" saja atau aspek dari "dunia nyata" yang mereka lewatkan dengan tidak menghadiri sekolah umum adalah peer tekanan tidak sehat, kejahatan, dan amorali

Praktis, homeschooler umumnya mengatasi potensi untuk "isolasi" melalui keterlibatan berat di kelompok pemuda gereja, klub 4H, musik dan pelajaran seni, Liga Kecil partisipasi olahraga, YMCA, Pramuka, kelompok bernyanyi, kegiatan dengan anak-anak tetangga, kontes akademik (lebah ejaan, pidato, makalah kreatif dan penelitian), dan keterlibatan reguler dalam perjalanan lapangan. Bahkan, salah satu peneliti menyatakan, "penyidik itu tidak siap untuk tingkat komitmen yang ditunjukkan oleh orang tua dalam menda

Dalam hampir setiap komunitas di seluruh negeri, kelompok pendukung homeschool lokal telah terbentuk di samping negara-lebar asosiasi homeschooling. Di banyak daerah kelompok-kelompok dukungan lokal mensponsori kegiatan-kegiatan mingguan dan bulanan untuk para siswa homeschooling, termasuk kelas pendidikan jasmani, speaker khusus, olahraga, berkemah, perjalanan ke museum, industri, peternakan, taman, tempat bersejarah, dan ratusan kegiatan lain. Kontes reguler juga diadakan termasuk lebah ejaan, pameran il

Selain itu, beberapa penelitian telah dilakukan untuk mengukur 'homeschooler "konsep diri", yang merupakan indikator tujuan utama untuk mendirikan anak harga diri. Sebuah gelar anak harga diri adalah salah satu pengukuran terbaik dari kemampuannya untuk berhasil berinteraksi pada tingkat sosial. Satu studi seperti itu dilakukan oleh John Wesley Taylor, menggunakan Konsep Diri Skala Piers Harris-anak untuk mengevaluasi 224 home-schooling anak-anak. Mereka studi menemukan bahwa 50 persen dari anak-anak mence

Peneliti lain dibandingkan sekolah swasta sembilan-year-olds dengan homeschooling sembilan-year-olds dan tidak menemukan perbedaan signifikan dalam kelompok-kelompok di hampir semua daerah psiko-sosial. Namun, di bidang penyesuaian sosial, perbedaan yang signifikan ditemukan: "sekolah swasta mata pelajaran tampaknya lebih peduli dengan rekan-rekan dari kelompok rumah berpendidikan." 4 Hal ini tentunya merupakan keuntungan bagi home-schooling anak-anak yang dapat menghindari negatif pengaruh teman sebaya.

Pada tahun 2004, Dr Susan McDowell menulis "Tapi Apa Tentang Sosialisasi? Menjawab Pertanyaan Depan Sekolah Abadi: Sebuah Tinjauan Literatur yang "berikut tantangan untuk mendokumentasikan gagasan umum bahwa homeschooler tidak disosialisasikan dibandingkan dengan para siswa di sekolah umum. McDowell, yang PhD dari Vanderbilt University adalah dalam kepemimpinan pendidikan, klaim: "Ini adalah hari non-isu. Semua penelitian menunjukkan anak-anak lakukan dengan baik "5.

Dr Linda Montgomery belajar siswa homeschooling antara usia sepuluh dan dua puluh satu dan menyimpulkan bahwa rumah-schooling anak-anak tidak terisolasi dari kegiatan sosial dengan pemuda lain. Dia juga menyimpulkan bahwa homeschooling dapat memupuk kepemimpinan setidaknya serta sekolah-sekolah konvensional do.6

Thomas Smedley mempersiapkan tesis master untuk Radford Universitas Virginia pada "Sosialisasi Anak Homeschool." Smedley menggunakan Vineland Perilaku Adaptif Timbangan untuk mengevaluasi kematangan sosial dua puluh home schooling anak-anak dan tiga belas anak demografi dipasangkan dengan sekolah umum. Keterampilan komunikasi, sosialisasi, dan keterampilan hidup sehari-hari dievaluasi. Nilai ini digabungkan ke dalam "Perilaku Komposit angkat" yang mencerminkan kematangan umum setiap subyek.

Smedley memiliki informasi ini diolah dengan menggunakan program statistik untuk ilmu sosial dan hasil menunjukkan bahwa rumah-schooling anak-anak lebih baik disosialisasikan dan lebih dewasa daripada anak-anak di sekolah umum. Rumah-schooling anak-anak mencetak gol di persentil 84 sementara sampel cocok anak-anak sekolah umum hanya mencetak di persentil 27.

Smedley lebih lanjut menemukan bahwa:

Dalam sistem sekolah umum, anak-anak disosialisasikan horizontal, dan untuk sementara, menjadi sesuai dengan rekan-rekan dekat mereka. Rumah pendidik berusaha untuk mensosialisasikan anak-anak mereka secara vertikal, terhadap tanggung jawab, pelayanan, dan dewasa, dengan mata pada eternity.7

Dalam studi lain tahun 1992, Dr Larry Shyers perilaku dibandingkan dan nilai tes perkembangan sosial dua kelompok anak-anak usia 78-10. Satu kelompok sedang dididik di rumah sementara kelompok lain bersekolah di sekolah umum dan swasta. Ia menemukan bahwa rumah-schooling anak-anak tidak ketinggalan anak-anak menghadiri sekolah umum atau swasta dalam pembangunan sosial.

Dr Shyers lebih lanjut menemukan bahwa rumah-schooling anak memiliki masalah perilaku lebih sedikit konsisten. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa rumah-schooling anak-anak berperilaku lebih baik karena mereka cenderung meniru orangtua mereka sementara konvensional-schooling anak-anak sendiri setelah model yang rekan-rekan mereka. Shyers menyatakan, "Hasil tampaknya menunjukkan bahwa pembangunan sosial anak lebih tergantung pada kontak dengan orang dewasa dan kurang pada kontak dengan anak lain seperti yang diduga

Dr Brian Ray terakhir hasil dari empat penelitian lain pada sosialisasi homeschooler dan menemukan:

Rakestraw, Reynolds, Schemmer, dan Wartes masing-masing mempelajari aspek kegiatan sosial dan karakteristik emosional rumah-schooling anak-anak. Mereka menemukan bahwa anak-anak secara aktif terlibat dalam banyak kegiatan di luar rumah dengan teman sebaya, yang berbeda usia anak-anak, dan orang dewasa. Data dari penelitian mereka menunjukkan bahwa homeschooler yang tidak terisolasi secara sosial, mereka juga tidak emosional maladjusted.9

J. Gary Knowles, Universitas Asisten Profesor Michigan Pendidikan, merilis sebuah penelitian yang dilakukan di University of Michigan yang menemukan bahwa mengajar anak di rumah tidak akan membuat mereka menyesuaikan diri sosial. Knowles disurvei 53 orang dewasa yang diajarkan di rumah karena ideologi atau isolasi geografis. Dia menemukan bahwa dua pertiga menikah, yang adalah norma untuk orang dewasa usia mereka. Tidak ada yang menganggur atau kesejahteraan. Ia menemukan lebih dari tiga perempat merasa ba

Seperti disebutkan sebelumnya, manfaat terbesar dari sosialisasi homeschool adalah bahwa anak dapat dilindungi dari sosialisasi negatif dari sekolah publik yang terkait dengan tekanan teman sebaya, seperti sikap memberontak, ketidakdewasaan, amoralitas, obat-obatan, dan perilaku kekerasan.

Diadaptasi dari The Pilihan Tepat: Sekolah Home oleh Christopher J. Klicka.

Catatan kaki

1. "Sosialisasi Praktek Pendidik Sekolah Rumah Kristen di Negara Bagian Virginia," muncul sebuah studi dari sepuluh rumah keluarga sekolah di Virginia, yang dilakukan oleh Dr Kathie Carwile, di Sekolah Peneliti Utama, Vol. 7, No 1, Desember 1991.

2. R. Meighan, "Kesadaran Politik dan Home Pendidikan Berbasis Review Pendidikan 36 (1984) :165-73.

3. Dr John Wesley Taylor, Self-Concept pada Anak Sekolah Rumah (Ann Arbor, Mich: Universitas mikrofilm Internasional), Order No DA8624219. Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai bagian dari disertasi di Andrews University. Hasil pengujian dari 224 home-schooling siswa dibandingkan dengan hasil pengujian 1.183 anak konvensional schooling.

4. Dr Mona Delahooke, "Rumah Anak-anak terdidik yang Penyesuaian Sosial / Emosional dan Prestasi Akademik: Sebuah Studi Komprehensif," disertasi doktor tidak dipublikasikan, California Sekolah Psikologi Profesional, Los Angeles, 1986, 85.

5 Dr Susan McDowell, "Tapi Apa Tentang Sosialisasi? Menjawab Pertanyaan Depan Sekolah Abadi: Review dari Sastra, "seperti dikutip dalam" Para peneliti Katakanlah Sosialisasi Tak Lagi Masalah "dari The Christian Post

6. Dr Linda Montgomery, "Pengaruh Sekolah Rumah tentang Keterampilan Kepemimpinan Mahasiswa Rumah dididik," Home Peneliti Sekolah (5) 1, 1989.

7. Thomas C. Smedley, MS, "Sosialisasi Anak dididik Depan: Sebuah Pendekatan Komunikasi," diajukan tesis dan disetujui untuk Master of Science dalam Corporate Communication dan Profesional, Radford University, Radford, Virginia, Mei 1992. (Unpublished.)

8. Dr Larry Shyers, "Perbandingan Antara Penyesuaian Sosial Rumah dan Siswa tradisional disekolahkan," disertasi doktor tidak dipublikasikan di University College Florida Pendidikan, 1992. Dr Shyers adalah seorang psikoterapis yang merupakan Ketua Dewan Florida Konseling Kesehatan Kerja, Pernikahan dan Keluarga Terapi, dan Mental Sosial Klinis.

9. Dr Brian Ray, "Review Penelitian Pendidikan Home," The Home Pengajaran, Agustus / September 1989, 49. Lihat Rakestraw, "Sebuah Analisis Sekolah Dasar Home untuk Anak Usia Sekolah di Alabama," disertasi doktor, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1987; Reynolds, "Bagaimana Depan Keluarga Sekolah Mengoperasikan pada Dasar Sehari-Hari: Tiga Studi Kasus, "disertasi doktor tidak dipublikasikan, Universitas Brigham Young, Provo, UT, 1985; dan

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