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Selasa, 21 September 2010

Lingzhi (ganoderma) - reishi - mushroom extract

http://www.zhion.com/herb/Lingzhi.html
Lingzhi mushroom extract
Benefits and Side Effects; RESEARCH FINDS
Lingzhi may be the second most popular herb in China. Lingzhi has many health
benefits, as some herbists suggest.

What is lingzhi? Lingzhi is a mushroom containing sterols, coumarin, mannitol,
polysaccharides, and triterpenoids [ganoderic acids]. Lingzhi mushrooms grow
wild on decaying logs and tree stumps in the coastal provinces of China. Lingzhi
mushroom grows in six different colors, but the red Lingzhi is the popular. Lingzhi
has been used to treat general fatigue and weakness, asthma, insomnia, and
cough for thousand years. Lingzhi's Chinese name ling zhi means the herb of
spiritual potency. Other names for lingzhi include lingzhi [Ling chih, Ling zhi, reishi,
Ganoderma lucidum]. Lingzhi mushroom extract is a popular supplement with an
impressive array of reputed health benefits in Asia!!

What are the scientific evidence for the health benefits
claims of lingzhi? Are there any side effects?

Antioxidative activities
Lingzhi [Ganoderma Lucidum] mushroom extract demonstrated anti-oxidative
activities against heart toxicity in mice in a dose-dependent manner. [Wong KL et al
Antioxidant activity of ganoderma lucidum (reishi) in acute ethanol-induced heart toxicity.
Phytother Res. 2004 Dec;18(12):1024-6.]

Immunocompetence
Lingzhiwas safe to horses with respect to the CBC and blood biochemistry data
after the Lingzhi dosing. Reishi (ganoderma lucidum) increased the percentage of
CD5+, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes and the amount of specific antibody
production in horses. [Lai SW et al, Influence of ganoderma lucidum on blood biochemistry
and immunocompetence in horses. Am J Chin Med. 2004;32(6):931-40.]

A fraction (F3) of a Lingzhi polysaccharide extract was shown to activate the
expression of IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF.
[Chen HS et al, Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma
lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Nov 1;12(21):5595-601]

Blood pressure, LDL and Coronary artery disease
Ganoderic acids (of Lingzhi) may lower blood pressure and LDL (the bad
cholesterol}. These specific triterpenoids may also help reduce blood platelets from
sticking together -an important factor in lowering the risk for coronary artery disease.
Two controlled clinical trials have shown that reishi could lower high blood pressure
significantly . [The people with hypertension in the second study had previously not responded
to medications, though these were continued during the study. Kammatsuse K, Kajiware N,
Hayashi K. Studies on Ganoderma lucidum: I. Efficacy against hypertension and side effects.
Yakugaku Zasshi 1985;105:531–3. Jin H, Zhang G, Cao X, et al. Treatment of hypertension by
ling zhi combined with hypotensor and its effects on arterial, arteriolar and capillary pressure and
microcirculation. In: Nimmi H, Xiu RJ, Sawada T, Zheng C. (eds). Microcirculatory Approach to
Asian Traditional Medicine. New York: Elsevier Science, 1996, 131–8.]

Altitude sickness and Hepatitis B
Reishi may have some efficacy in treating altitude sickness and chronic hepatitis B.
[Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms. Santa Cruz, CA: Botanica Press, 1995, 96–107]

Glomerulosclerosis
Lingzhi [ganoderma lucidum] may suppress endothelial cell cytotoxicity and
proteinuria in 14 patients of glomerulosclerosis.Futrakul N et al, Ganoderma lucidum
suppresses endothelial cell cytotoxicity and proteinuria in persistent proteinuric focal segmental
glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) nephrosis, Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2004;31(4):267-72.

Diabetes Mellitus
Reishi may have some beneficial action in people with diabetes mellitus and
cancer [Jones K. Reishi mushroom: Ancient medicine in modern times. Alt Compl Ther 1998;4:
256–66 [review].]

Zhang HN and Lin ZB, Peking University, Beijing, investigated the hypoglycemic
effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (reishi extract) in the normal fasted
mice and the possible mechanism. They found that reishi extract could lower the
glucose level in a dose-dependent manner however the reishi extract had no effect
on islets insulin content. [Zhang HN et al, Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum
polysaccharides, Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004 Feb;25(2):191-5]

Cancer
Lingzhi has been shown to be a potential agent in the treatment or prevention of
certain cancers. Clearly, reshishi demonstrates anticancer activity in experiments
with cancer cells. [Sliva D, Methodist Research Institute, IN, Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi) in
cancer treatment, Integr Cancer Ther. 2003 Dec;2(4):358-64.]

A Japanese research group extracted triterpene acid, lucidenic acid P (1a), and two
triterpene acid methyl esters, methyl lucidenates P (1b) and Q (2b) from the fruiting
body of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum (reishi). All of the compounds from Lingzhi
extracted showed potent inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen
induction (96-100% inhibition at 1 x 10(3) mol ratio/TPA). [Lucidenic acids P and Q,
methyl lucidenate P, and other triterpenoids from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) and
their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation. J Nat Prod. 2003 Dec;66(12):1582-5]

Colon cancer Hong KJ et al, Texas Tech University, found that Lingzhi extract
causes no cytotoxicity in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells at doses less than
10000 microg/ml. Increasing concentrations of reishi extract reduced prostaglandin
E2 production, but increased nitric oxide production. Together with other data, reishi
extract has been shown to have pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory functions, as
well as inhibitory effects on cytokine expression during early inflammation in colonic
carcinoma cells. [Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on apoptotic and anti-inflammatory function
in HT-29 human colonic carcinoma cells. Phytother Res. 2004 Sep;18(9):768-70.]

Breast Cancer Lingzhi (ganoderma lucidum) inhibited proliferation of breast cancer
MDA-MB-231 cells by downregulating Akt/NF-kappaB signaling. [Jiang J et al,
Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-
kappaB signaling. Nutr Cancer. 2004;49(2):209-16.]

Prostate Cancer Lingzhi inhibits cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent
manner by the down-regulation of expression of cyclin B and Cdc2 and by the up-
regulation of p21 expression for the human prostate caner cells PC-3. The Lingzhi
inhibition of the cancer cell growth was also demonstrated by cell cycle arrest at
G2/M phase. [Jiang J et al, Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in
human prostate cancer cells PC-3, Int J Oncol. 2004 May;24(5):1093-9]

Ulcer
New Zealead researchers observed the anti-ulcer activities of Lingzhi on the rat.
They extracted the water-soluble polysaccharide from Lingzhi mushroom
(ganoderma lucidum) and inhibited the indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal
lesions successfully in rats with the reishi extracts. [Gao Y et al, Ganoderma lucidum
polysaccharide fractions accelerate healing of acetic acid0induced ulcers in rates. J Med Food.
2004 Winter;7(4):417-21]

DOSE
Lingzhi can be taken either as 1.5 grams per day of the crude dried mushroom, 1-
1.5 grams per day in powdered form.[Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms. Santa Cruz, CA:
Botanica Press, 1995, 96–107]

SIDE EFFECTS
Side effects from Lingzhi can include dizziness, dry mouth and throat, nosebleeds,
and abdominal upset.

Commercial Lingzhi Products
Unicity Bio-Lingzhi Coffee-claimed to be enriched with the purest form of Ganoderma (reishi)
extract. Unicity Bio-Reishi Coffee contains 20 sachets in a box.
Lingzhi Black Coffee-claimed to contain premium black coffee, ganoderma extract (i.e. reishi
extract) and artificial sweetener. Price $9.99 (21g X20 sacs) at Econoherbs.
Lingzhi Roasted Coffee (Zhi Café) -claimed to contain coffee beans and ganoderma (i.e.
reishi). Price $8.99 (6g X20 sacs) at Econoherbs.
Amato Instant Reishi Tea – claimed to contain Unsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, ß-D-
glucan, Ergosterol, Pro vitamin D2, Carotene, Minerals, complete proteins. Price $43 (3g X 30
sachets) at kyotan

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Terjemahan Inggris ke Bahasa Indonesia
Ekstrak jamur lingzhi
Manfaat dan Efek Samping; Hasil Riset menemukan
Lingzhi dapat menjadi ramuan paling populer kedua di Cina. Lingzhi memiliki banyak kesehatan
manfaat, karena beberapa herbists sarankan.

Apa itu lingzhi? Lingzhi adalah jamur yang mengandung sterol, kumarin, manitol,
polisakarida, dan senyawa triterpenoid [] ganoderic asam. tumbuh jamur Lingzhi
liar pada pembusukan kayu dan tunggul pohon di propinsi pantai Cina. Lingzhi
jamur tumbuh di enam warna yang berbeda, tetapi Lingzhi merah adalah populer. Lingzhi
telah digunakan untuk mengobati kelelahan umum dan kelemahan, asma, insomnia, dan
batuk selama seribu tahun. nama Cina Lingzhi's ling zhi berarti herba
potensi spiritual. Nama lain untuk lingzhi termasuk [lingzhi chih Ling, Ling zhi, reishi,
Ganoderma lucidum]. Ekstrak jamur lingzhi adalah suplemen yang populer dengan
mengesankan array manfaat kesehatan terkenal di Asia!

Apa bukti ilmiah untuk manfaat kesehatan
klaim dari lingzhi? Apakah ada efek samping?

Aktivitas antioksidan
Lingzhi [Ganoderma Lucidum jamur] ekstrak menunjukkan anti-oksidatif
kegiatan terhadap toksisitas hati pada tikus secara dosis-tergantung. [Et al Wong KL
Aktivitas antioksidan Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) di jantung akut toksisitas etanol-induced.
Phytother Res. Desember 2004; 18 (12) :1024-6.]

Imunokompetensi
Lingzhiwas aman untuk kuda sehubungan dengan KBK dan data biokimia darah
setelah dosis Lingzhi. Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) meningkatkan persentase
CD5 +, CD4 + dan CD8 + T-limfosit dan jumlah antibodi spesifik
produksi pada kuda. [Lai SW et al, Pengaruh Ganoderma lucidum pada biokimia darah
dan Imunokompetensi pada kuda. Am J Chin Med. 2004; 32 (6) :931-40.]

Sebuah fraksi (F3) dari ekstrak polisakarida Lingzhi ditampilkan untuk mengaktifkan
ekspresi IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, G-CSF dan M-CSF.
[Chen et al HS, Studi pada-immuno modulasi dan kegiatan anti-tumor Ganoderma
lucidum (Reishi) polisakarida. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Nov 1; 12 (21) :5595-601]

Tekanan darah, LDL dan penyakit arteri koroner
asam Ganoderic (dari Lingzhi) dapat menurunkan tekanan darah dan LDL (yang buruk
kolesterol). Senyawa triterpenoid ini spesifik juga dapat membantu mengurangi tranfusi darah dari
menempel bersama-faktor penting dalam menurunkan resiko penyakit jantung koroner.
Dua uji klinis terkontrol telah menunjukkan bahwa reishi dapat menurunkan tekanan darah tinggi
signifikan. [Orang-orang dengan hipertensi dalam studi kedua sebelumnya tidak menanggapi
untuk obat-obatan, meskipun ini dilanjutkan selama penelitian. Kammatsuse K, N Kajiware,
K. Hayashi Studi pada Ganoderma lucidum: I. Efikasi terhadap hipertensi dan efek samping.
Yakugaku Zasshi 1985; 105:531 Â-3. Jin H, Zhang G, Cao X, et al. Pengobatan hipertensi oleh
ling zhi dikombinasikan dengan hypotensor dan dampaknya pada arteri, tekanan arteriolar dan kapiler dan
mikrosirkulasi. Dalam: H Nimmi, Xiu RJ, Sawada T, eds Zheng C. (). Pendekatan Microcirculatory
Pengobatan Tradisional Asia. New York: Elsevier Science, 1996, 131Â-8.]

Ketinggian sakit dan Hepatitis B
Reishi mungkin memiliki beberapa keberhasilan dalam mengobati penyakit ketinggian dan kronis hepatitis B.
[Hobbs C. Obat Jamur. Santa Cruz, CA: Botanica Press, 1995, 96Â-107]

Glomerulosclerosis
Lingzhi [Ganoderma] lucidum bisa menekan sitotoksisitas sel endotel dan
proteinuria pada 14 pasien dari glomerulosclerosis.Futrakul N et al, Ganoderma lucidum
menekan sitotoksisitas sel endotel dan proteinuria pada gigih proteinuric focal segmental
glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) nephrosis, Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2004; 31 (4) :267-72.

Diabetes Mellitus
Reishi mungkin memiliki beberapa tindakan bermanfaat pada penderita diabetes mellitus dan
kanker [Jones K. jamur Reishi: obat Kuno di zaman modern. Alt xor Ada 1998; 4:
256Â-66 [review].]

HN Zhang dan Lin ZB, Peking University, Beijing, menyelidiki hipoglikemik
pengaruh polisakarida Ganoderma lucidum (ekstrak reishi) di normal berpuasa
tikus dan mekanisme yang mungkin. Mereka menemukan bahwa ekstrak reishi dapat menurunkan
Tingkat glukosa secara dosis-tergantung ekstrak reishi namun tidak berpengaruh
pada konten pulau insulin. [Zhang et al HN, efek Ganoderma lucidum Hipoglisemiknya
polisakarida, Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004 Februari; 25 (2) :191-5]

Kanker
Lingzhi telah terbukti menjadi agen yang potensial dalam pengobatan atau pencegahan
kanker tertentu. Jelas, reshishi menunjukkan aktivitas antikanker dalam eksperimen
dengan sel-sel kanker. [Sliva D, Methodist Research Institute, DI, Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi) di
pengobatan kanker, Kanker Ada terlampir. 2003 Desember, 2 (4) :358-64.]

Sekelompok peneliti Jepang diekstraksi triterpene asam, asam lucidenic P (1a), dan dua
triterpene metil ester asam, metil lucidenates P (1b) dan Q (2b) dari yang berbuah
tubuh jamur Ganoderma lucidum (reishi). Semua senyawa dari Lingzhi
diekstraksi menunjukkan efek inhibisi kuat pada virus Epstein-Barr antigen awal
induksi (inhibisi 96-100% pada 1 x 10 (3) rasio mol / TPA). [Lucidenic asam P dan Q,
lucidenate metil P, dan senyawa triterpenoid lain dari jamur Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) dan
mereka hambat efek pada aktivasi virus Epstein-Barr. J Nat Prod. Desember 2003; 66 (12) :1582-5]

Kanker usus besar Hong KJ et al, Texas Tech University, menemukan bahwa ekstrak Lingzhi
tidak menyebabkan sitotoksisitas pada karsinoma kolon HT-29 manusia sel pada dosis kurang dari
10.000 microg / ml. Peningkatan konsentrasi ekstrak reishi mengurangi prostaglandin
E2 produksi, tetapi peningkatan produksi oksida nitrat. Bersama dengan data lain, reishi
ekstrak telah terbukti memiliki fungsi pro-apoptosis dan anti-inflamasi, sebagai
serta efek inhibisi ekspresi sitokin selama inflamasi awal kolon
karsinoma sel. [Pengaruh Ganoderma lucidum pada fungsi apoptosis dan anti-inflamasi
dalam HT-29 manusia sel kanker kolon. Phytother Res. 2004 September; 18 (9) :768-70.]

Kanker Payudara Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) menghambat proliferasi kanker payudara
MDA-MB-231 sel oleh downregulating Akt / NF-kappaB signaling. [Et al J Jiang,
Ganoderma lucidum menekan pertumbuhan sel kanker payudara melalui penghambatan Akt/NF-
kappaB sinyal. Nutr Cancer. 2004; 49 (2) :209-16.]

Kanker Prostat Lingzhi menghambat proliferasi sel dalam dosis dan waktu tergantung
cara oleh peraturan-down ekspresi siklin B dan Cdc2 dan oleh up-
peraturan p21 ekspresi bagi manusia prostat caner sel-PC 3. The Lingzhi
menghambat pertumbuhan sel kanker juga ditunjukkan oleh penangkapan siklus sel di
G2 / M fase. [Jiang J et al, Ganoderma lucidum menghambat proliferasi dan menginduksi apoptosis dalam
sel kanker prostat manusia PC-3, Int J Oncol. 2004 Mei; 24 (5) :1093-9]

Maag
New Zealead peneliti mengamati kegiatan anti-ulkus dari Lingzhi pada tikus.
Mereka diekstraksi dengan polisakarida larut air dari jamur Lingzhi
(Ganoderma lucidum) dan menghambat indometasin-induced mukosa lambung
lesi berhasil pada tikus dengan ekstrak reishi. [Et al Gao Y, Ganoderma lucidum
polisakarida fraksi mempercepat penyembuhan luka acid0induced asetat tarif. J Med Food.
2004 Winter; 7 (4) :417-21]

DOSIS
Lingzhi dapat diambil baik sebagai 1,5 gram per hari minyak mentah kering jamur, 1 -
1,5 gram per hari dalam bentuk bubuk [Hobbs. C. Obat Jamur. Santa Cruz, CA:
Botanica Press, 1995, 96Â-107]

EFEK SAMPING
Efek samping dari Lingzhi dapat mencakup pusing, mulut kering dan tenggorokan, mimisan,
dan perut kesal.

Komersial Produk Lingzhi
Unisitas Lingzhi Bio-kopi-diklaim sebagai yang diperkaya dengan bentuk paling murni dari Ganoderma (reishi)
ekstrak. Unisitas Bio-Reishi kopi berisi 20 sachet dalam sebuah kotak.
Black Lingzhi mengaku kopi-kopi hitam berisi premium, ekstrak Ganoderma (yaitu reishi
ekstrak) dan pemanis buatan. Harga $ 9,99 (21g kantung X20) di Econoherbs.
Roasted Kopi Lingzhi (Zhi cafà ©)-diklaim berisi biji kopi dan Ganoderma (yaitu
reishi). Harga $ 8,99 (6g kantung X20) di Econoherbs.
Amato Instan Teh Reishi Â-mengaku mengandung asam lemak jenuh, polisakarida, AY-D-
glukan, ergosterol, Pro vitamin D2, Karoten, Mineral, protein yang lengkap. Harga $ 43 (3g X 30
sachet) di kyotan

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